brown and gold plaque with a message commemorating R.B.Cunninghame Graham

Scotland’s history is full of people who have done great things, and our Commemorative Plaque Scheme aims to celebrate as many as we can. Professor Emeritus Joe Farrell explains why he decided to nominate Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, whose plaque was recently installed at the Lake of Menteith.

A Man That Defied Description

Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852- 1936), also known as Don Roberto, was one of the outstanding Scotsmen of recent centuries. He was internationally famous in his lifetime – but I’d say he has been unjustly neglected since his death.

Often compared to Don Quixote, Graham was a writer, traveller, adventurer, horseman, politician, and campaigner against injustice. He was a man whose achievements couldn’t be contained in any neat category. G. K. Chesterton gave up any attempt at pinning him down, and eventually concluded that he succeeded in the impossible task ‘of being Cunninghame Graham.’

watercolour image showing head and shoulders of man with white hair and beard

© Dianne Sutherland. Licensor www.scran.ac.uk

Bontine’s Backstory

He was born in London of mixed Spanish and Scottish aristocratic stock, and claimed to be able to trace his lineage back to King Robert II. Aged seventeen he went to South America, where he lived as a gaucho in Argentina and Uruguay.

Extravagant exploits ensued, but it was also there he first witnessed the plight of the poor and dispossessed. Appalled by the cruelty of landowners and political masters, his travels helped shape his political views and featured in his many books on South America.

We’ll Always Have Paris

In 1878, Don Roberto met a woman as quixotic, romantic and independent-minded as he was. The two were in Paris, the meeting apparently came after his horse knocked into her, and they fell in love. Reader, she married him.

They spent the first years of married life in Texas. These were the days of the Wild West, and Don Roberto wrote to his mother that he carried

‘a revolver, a Winchester carbine of twelve shots, a sword and a knife, and I am not safe for a minute.’

The couple had a ranch, but it was razed to the ground by a war party and the cattle driven off. This was one of the reasons they returned to Britain in 1881 – but he offered his full-hearted support to the Native Americans. He was appalled at the callous depiction of the slaughter at Wounded Knee in the press, and wrote impassioned, defiant articles in their defence.

International Woman of Mystery

Don Roberto’s wife claimed to be Gabrielle Marie de la Balmondière, a Chilean of French aristocratic blood. She passed as such all her life and even spoke, as W. B. Yeats recorded, with a foreign accent – but not one he was able to place.

In fact, the family revealed after her death that she was Caroline Stansfield Horsfall. Hailing from Yorkshire, she had run away from home to work as an actress. Like her husband, she was talented in many fields. She wrote poetry, travelled widely, and wrote several books, including a much admired Life of Saint Teresa of Avila.

She was returning from France in 1906 when she died, aged just 45. She was buried in the ruins of the medieval priory on Inchmahome in the Lake of Menteith. Don Roberto dug her grave himself.

stone arch leading to a wooden door in the distance

A Political Life

In 1886, Cunninghame Graham was elected to Parliament. He represented North West Lanarkshire for the Liberal party, but his views were well to the left of any recognisable Liberal position. He can be regarded as the first socialist MP in Westminster.

Parliamentary language did not appeal to him and on one occasion, when supporting the striking chain-makers of Cradley Heath, he was ordered by the Speaker to withdraw his remarks. He replied ‘I never withdraw!’ and was expelled from the Chamber. The retort impressed George Bernard Shaw, who used it in his play, Captain Brassbound’s Conversion.

black and white photo of a man with a beard looking to the side

© Hulton Getty. Licensor www.scran.ac.uk

Cunninghame Graham was also arrested in 1887 for ‘unlawful assembly’ when he participated in a banned demonstration in Trafalgar Square. This later became known as Bloody Sunday, and he was sentenced to six weeks’ imprisonment.

In 1888, together with Keir Hardie and James Connolly, he helped found the Scottish Labour Party. Decades later in 1928, he co-founded the National Party of Scotland, which united with other nationalist bodies to form the modern SNP.

A Prolific Author

Don Roberto wrote many political articles, but was in his forties when in 1895 his first book, Notes on the District of Menteith, appeared.

Thereafter his books, around forty in all, appeared almost at the rate of one a year. He formed a close, mutually admiring friendship with Joseph Conrad, as well as with Shaw, Chesterton and Oscar Wilde.

His compassion for the underdog, outrage at injustice, feeling for his native place and interest in other lands all allied to his acerbic wit, making his work eminently readable today. So why has he dropped out of view?

A man worth remembering

Scotland’s first makar, Edwin Morgan, speculated Don Roberto never gained the recognition he deserved because of the ‘uncategorisability’ of his work. He did not write novels, plays or poetry. Many of his shorter pieces are a fusion of essay and short story.

card with message in memory of Don Roberto

Some of his books are biographies of Latin American personalities, or histories of that continent. Others deal with his own experiences, still others with Scottish themes. His style and language are extravagant, employing vocabulary from Spanish, Scots or even Arabic when it suited his purpose.

Perhaps the most famous of Cunninghame Graham’s Scottish stories was Beattock for Moffat, the tale of an elderly exile attempting, unsuccessfully, to return home to die. This strangely parallels his own fate. He died in 1936 in Buenos Aires where his body lay in state, the President among the mourners, before being brought back to Scotland. He was buried on Inchmahome, alongside his wife.

I can think of no one better to be remembered by the HES Commemorative Plaque Scheme.

The Commemorative Plaque Scheme is open for nominations until 31 January 2018.

Guest author Joe Farrell was Professor of Italian at University of Strathclyde, but likes to balance knowledge of Italian and Scottish culture. He recently published a book on Robert Louis Stevenson’s time in Samoa, and inherited his life-long interest in Don Roberto from his father, who was an admirer and who used to take the family for picnics at the Lake of Menteith.


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From time to time we have guest posts from partners, visitors and friends of Historic Environment Scotland.

  • Ewan
  • Lachie Munro

    Professor Farrell’s claim that he alone nominated Cunninghame Graham is less than accurate. The idea was first put forward to me by Cunninghame Graham Society member David McCann of Alloa. As Secretary of the Society, I then wrote an extensive proposal for the plaque which I got Professor Farrell to sign, as Society Convenor. The proposal was supposed to be on behalf of the Society, not any one person, certainly not someone whose initial input was non-existent.